By 1914, the scene was set for antisemitism on a large scale throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Racial antisemitism and ethno-nationalism had prevented a full integration of Jews into society. ‘Concatenations’ looks at the effect of antisemitism in all its variant forms on the Jewish situation within European society. Central European Jews adjusted to the new situation of racism and ethno-nationalism by adopting the same approach to their own identity: to form their own state, improve themselves, cure European society of antisemitism, and complete the emancipation by integration into humankind as a nation rather than as individuals. But how did this apparently manageable situation result in the Holocaust?