‘Lingua franca, hybrids, and constructed languages’ explains that multilingualism is not a modern phenomenon. Throughout history, as languages come into contact with each other, people have coped with difference in various ways. Macaronic (hybrid) texts were common in medieval European literature and song. A simple form of language used for limited and mostly spoken communication between people is a ‘pidgin’. One response to the fact of multiple languages in the world has been the making of consciously devised languages. A constructed language has several uses, primarily as a means of international communication. It is nationally neutral, a non-ethnic language with a non-territorial speech community. The most successful example is Esperanto, which was created in 1887.