‘Population pyramids and projections’ describes a key concept within demography—the population pyramid. The age pyramid represents the distribution of a population by age and sex. It comprises a pair of bar graphs joined in the centre and traditionally resembling an Egyptian pyramid. The vertical axis records age, with young at the base and old at the top, and the bars coming off the axis to the right represent females and to the left males. The demographic behaviour of individuals is affected by their age, the time period in which they are living, and their shared cohort experience. Different methods of population projections to foresee population futures are also outlined.