There is a frequent identification of farming with tradition, even if what is seen as traditional might change over time. Farming is seen as a way of life, in which doing right by the land, producing healthy crops and livestock, employing local people, and having a thriving farm to hand on to the next generation are more important than expansion, profit maximization, and integration with the food chain. In contrast to big, modern, mechanized, globalized agribusinesses, it is sustainable, produces wildlife habitats and beautiful landscapes, and cares about animal welfare. How accurate is this view? ‘Modern and traditional farming’ considers the issues of sustainability, animal welfare, and wildlife and landscape.