Under Nebuchadnezzar, Babylon reached the height of its cultural, intellectual, and material splendour. Other cities of the kingdom also benefited greatly during his reign, especially in their material development. ‘Nebuchadnezzar’s Babylon’ re-creates Nebuchadnezzar’s royal capital using evidence from the archaeological record. It describes the layout of the city and the design and structure of Babylon’s palaces and temples built by Nebuchadnezzar and his father, Nabopolassar. The twelve-day New Year festival, which celebrated the arrival of spring and Marduk’s triumph over the forces of evil, is also explained. Finally, the ‘Hanging Gardens of Babylon’ are considered. Were they real or simply a fantasy?