Matrices represent the central algebraic vehicle for advanced computation throughout mathematics as well as the physical and social sciences. ‘Introduction to matrices’ explains that matrices are simply rectangular arrays of numbers. There are some natural, simple operations that can be performed on matrices. Scalar multiplication is where all entries in a matrix are multiplied by a fixed number. Network theory is one of the major applications of linear algebra, which is the branch of the subject that is largely represented by matrices and matrix calculations. Another application of matrices is to the geometry of transformations.