What impact did the presence of the Arabs and Turks, then the Europeans in India, have on the religious ideas and practices of Hindus? ‘Hinduism, colonialism, and modernity’ considers this question and, in particular, looks at the effect of British colonialism on Hinduism. Many of the new Hindu initiatives of the 19th century were pervaded in some way by the influence of western culture and Christian ideas. Many Hindu reformers, such as Gandhi, developed their ideas and actions from the context of British colonial rule. Gandhi sometimes imitated, sometimes resisted, but was always influenced by western conceptions of India and Hinduism.