‘The Depression, Cardenismo, and after’ considers the early 1930s Depression that produced a lurch to the Left and the revolutionary period’s last great reformist administration of President Lázaro Cárdenas. The Depression, hitting an already becalmed Mexican economy, had a severe but short-lived effect. Structural features of the economy, coupled with ‘revolutionary’ policy, helped achieve a more rapid recovery than in the US. Land reform and rural education were central to Cárdenas, whose critics were the anti-revolutionary Right, the urban middle class, and political Catholics. Towards the end of the 1930s, the political pendulum swung back to the Right with the presidencies of Manuel Avila Camacho and Miguel Alemán.