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p. 995. The early modern empire (2)

from the Peace of Westphalia to 1806locked

  • Joachim Whaley


The Thirty Years War was a disaster for much of the empire, yet the post-war era provided new opportunities and developments, which all contributed to the extraordinary cultural vitality of the German lands, manifest especially in the literary, musical, and philosophical achievements of the 18th and early 19th centuries. ‘The early modern empire (2): from the Peace of Westphalia to 1806’ outlines the empire’s revival after 1648 and the external threats that helped maintain its solidarity—the Ottoman wars, hostilities with France, and conflicts with Sweden in the north. It concludes with the French Revolution and Napoleon, whose insistence on the abdication of Francis II resulted in the dissolution of the empire in 1806.

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