‘The legacy of the Holy Roman Empire’ describes the region’s history after 1806. The empire’s dissolution in 1806 effectively partitioned its territory into four zones. Would ‘Germany’ ever be united again? Napoleon’s defeat by the Austrians is discussed along with the creation of the German Confederation, the failure of the Frankfurt Parliament, the 1866 Austro-Prussian war, the creation of the German Empire in 1871, the aftermath of World War I, and the rise of the Third Reich. Is the empire relevant as a model for the present? There is no doubt that its traditions of law and of rights contributed, alongside the traditions that evolved in other European countries, to the development of modern Europe.