‘The history of branding’ outlines the five different versions of branding seen over history. The first dates back to the Ancient Egyptians who, with the branding of cattle, demonstrated the earliest form of commercial branding. This was followed by organizational branding: hallmarks to show a product’s quality and companies stamping their ‘brand’ onto products. Probably the most dominant kind of branding is cultural branding—the technique of giving products deeper, more emotional associations, promising pleasure or enhanced self-esteem. There is also business-to-business and luxury branding. With all these different kinds of branding in play, almost anything can now be branded. What varies is the degree of control and complexity involved.