‘Irregular migration’ explores migration outside of established legal means. There are many ways for a migrant to be classed as irregular, but their motivations for leaving are the same as other migrants. Irregular migration is often seen as a threat to host nation sovereignty and, as a result, migrants are often subjected to stereotyping and xenophobia. Migrants—particularly women and children—face great hazards in simply entering the country. A multi-billion dollar industry has developed around the desire of people to move despite legal restrictions, in the form of human trafficking and migrant smuggling. These phenomena occur in all regions, and incur massive costs—and dangers—to irregular migrants.