Are the Dead Sea Scrolls the greatest manuscript discovery of the 20th century? The public perception of this question differs greatly from the scholarly view. ‘The greatest manuscript discovery’ concludes that, for Jewish studies of the Second Temple period and biblical studies, they are. The Dead Sea Scrolls provide the earliest Hebrew and Aramaic manuscripts of almost all the biblical books—illuminating the canonical process; dual pattern of scripture and tradition; and graded authority of compositions: biblical, non-biblical, and sectarian. The scrolls are the oldest examples of Old Testament texts, but they also act as a foil bringing out new insights into the early Christian church and New Testament.