‘The archaeological site and caves’ examines the archaeological evidence found at the Khirbet Qumran site. Palestinian archaeology was previously dominated by the biblical agenda, but Khirbet Qumran is not mentioned in the Bible, and was only excavated because of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The occupation of the site is generally divided into three phases: the Israelite phase, the communal phase (occupation by the Essenes), and the Second Revolt phase. A cemetery also exists at the site. This was the burial ground of the Qumran people (mixed with some later Bedouin burials), and arguments have raged over the importance of the different sections of the cemetery.