Why do we sometimes make absent-minded mistakes? Why do we choose immediate rewards rather than longer-term rewards that are larger? What is the basis for moral reasoning? While considering these questions, ‘Deciding’ shows that the prefrontal cortex is in a unique position in the processing hierarchy. It has access to information about the current situation, information about the current needs and aims, and access to the motor system. The prefrontal cortex is critically involved in preparing, deciding, and planning for the future. Human ability to plan in the head and imagine outcomes both for themselves and others is also dependent on this area of the brain.