Anthropic and veterinary medical science overlap considerably, each learning from the other. However, simply comparing and contrasting them is not that helpful. Essentially, veterinary science is part of medical science. ‘Our families and other animals’ considers in turn animal biology (anatomy, physiology, and genetics); the pathology and microbiology of animal diseases; animal psychology and ethology; and animal responses to disease through immunology and pathophysiology. Despite the similarities between human and non-human animals, the medical treatment different species receive can vary. Key differences for veterinarians are in having to balance duties to their patients with responsibilities to humans; and that euthanasia is a common and important part of veterinary work.