An obvious part of veterinary science is about making animals better when they are ill, injured, or disabled. ‘Making illnesses better’ explains the processes involved in identifying what is wrong with an animal: initial observations and discussions with the owner and further tests, such as X-rays, ultrasound, and biological and chemical investigations. Veterinary treatments tend to belong to four broad methods: drugs, surgery, advice to change how patients are cared for, and euthanasia to prevent suffering where other treatments are not sufficiently likely to be beneficial. Multiple treatments are often combined in the care for each patient. However, treatments can often come with risks of unintended side-effects.