Human reshaping of ecology has been driving the Anthropocene transition since its very first beginnings. ‘Oikos’ explains that the Anthropocene poses even greater challenges for those working to conserve and restore natural habitats. What does ‘natural habitat’ even mean on a planet transformed by humans? The complex dynamics of human–environment interactions make it a challenge to detect whether a significant ecological change has occurred. The ‘historic range of variability’ or ‘baseline’ state of ecological parameters needs to be characterized. If human societies are now operating as a global force that is transforming Earth to the detriment of both humanity and non-human nature, what, if anything, is to be done about it?