How should Catholics behave? How might the holiness with which they have been blessed express itself in their daily existence? ‘Catholic moral life and teaching’ points out that, although Jesus, Paul, and other early Christians endorsed what Judaism had taught about right and wrong behaviour, it was not until modern times that Catholic theologians began developing a distinct body of moral teaching on areas such as social justice, universal human rights, and ecological issues. Vatican II and John Paul II elaborated a consistent ethic in support of human dignity and life, especially with regard to abortion. Modern-day concerns for many Catholics include the use of contraception, same-sex marriages, and IVF.