Humans have been practical geologists since even before our own species, Homo sapiens, walked the Earth. The exploitation of rock-bound resources required a level of understanding of rock composition and structure that remains impressive today. The mining of metals, the extraction of building stone, the engineering of waterways, developed over the centuries. Today, geological materials have become utterly pervasive within our lives. ‘Geology for resources’ considers how geologists seek out these resources from within the crust of our planet, focusing on fossilized hydrocarbons used as energy resources (coal, oil, and gas); the metal extraction process from metal ores; industrial mineralogy; phosphates, essential nutrients in agriculture; and hydrogeology, the study of underground water resources.