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p. 92. How the EU was madelocked

  • Simon Usherwood
  •  and John Pinder

Abstract

‘How the EU was made’ examines the combination of interests and events leading to the development of the EC, including the founding treaties. The Single European Act (SEA) provided for completion of the single market by 1992, strengthening the EC’s powers and institutions. It was succeeded by the Maastricht, Amsterdam, Nice, and Lisbon treaties, likewise strengthening both powers and institutions, and responding to similar combinations of pressures. The prospect of the single market helped to revive the economy, and EC institutions gained strength as they dealt with a vast programme of legislation. Recent years have seen the EU grow further, but also Britain’s decision to leave in the 2016 referendum.

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