Difficulties with reading and writing have wide-ranging effects beyond academic achievement, including effects on career opportunities, personal well-being, and to some extent mental health. Literacy difficulties, when they are not caused by lack of education, are known as dyslexia. Dyslexia can be defined as a problem with learning that primarily affects the development of reading accuracy and fluency and spelling skills. ‘Does dyslexia exist?’ explains that it is now widely understood that dyslexia is a specific learning disorder, but that there is no clear, diagnostic profile. However, dyslexia can be a disabling condition and we can do a great deal to ameliorate its effects.