All behaviour, including reading, is controlled by the brain. It is therefore natural to ask: are there differences in brain structure or function in dyslexia that cause difficulties in learning to read? ‘The dyslexic brain’ discusses different methods of neuroimaging for investigating the brain. It focuses on measures of brain function, noting that differences in brain structure between dyslexic and non-impaired readers have been confirmed in left-language regions. It then considers some key questions: Is the brain’s signature for dyslexia the same across languages? Does literacy change the brain? Can brain imaging be used as a predictor of the ease of learning to read? Are there biomarkers that indicate dyslexia risk?