The Young Hegelians, including Bauer and Feuerbach, saw religion as the alienated human essence, and sought to end this alienation through their critical studies of Christianity. ‘From God to money’ explains how Marx then went on to transform Hegel’s ideas and methods. Marx’s ideas at this stage were liberal rather than socialist, thinking that a change in the state of consciousness was all that was needed. A shift to his emphasis on the material and economic conditions of human life was to come later, initially in his essay ‘On the Jewish Question’ (1843). Marx insisted that it is neither religion nor philosophy, but money that is the barrier to human freedom.