Marx had developed two important ideas: that economics is the chief form of human alienation and that the material force needed to liberate humanity from its domination by the capitalist system lies in the working class. ‘The first Marxism’ looks at how Marx began his immense study of economics in 1844 and outlines the ideas he formed at this time, culminating in his greatest work, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Marx advocated the abolition of wages, alienated labour, and private property in one blow: in a word, communism. The 1844 version of Marxism is a speculative philosophy of history rather than a scientific study. The aim of world history is human freedom.