‘Identity’ addresses the iconography of Egypt's early ethnic identity, considering the significance of the Narmer Palette with regard to the early pharaonic Egyptians' definition of their own national identity. How did the ancient Egyptians view themselves? The chapter looks at how they portrayed themselves in painting and sculpture and analyses their depictions of ‘foreigners’. As in many other cultures, the Egyptians seem to have gained a sense of their own identity primarily by contrasting themselves with the peoples of the world outside their borders. Gender and sexuality played a massive role in Egyptian identity, as did the evidence for same-sex relations in ancient Egypt.