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p. 272. The laying of the foundations (to 1781)locked

  • Nicholas Boyle

Abstract

‘The laying of the foundations (to 1781)’ explains how, from the middle of the thirteenth century, the social and political tensions were becoming apparent that were to determine the culture of modern Germany. The monetarization of economic relations, the replacement of feudal dues and payments in kind by rents paid in cash, a process which in urban areas was largely complete by the end of the thirteenth century, had a fundamental effect on conceptions of personal identity. As literacy spread, the new concept of individual identity, reinforced by the practice of solitary and silent reading, rapidly made obsolete the chivalrous literature of feudalism.

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