‘Medicine in the hospital’ charts the ‘medical revolution’ seen in nineteenth-century France, and the development of new techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of physical and mental illness. Between the French revolutions of 1789 and 1848, Paris became the centre of medical developments, giving rise to a number of important techniques and the concept of the joint hospital medical school. The invaluable practices of physical diagnosis and autopsy originated here, as did mass scale observations. These eventually became widespread. The French example led to the establishment of medical schools across the globe, prompting further medical developments, particularly in the field of psychiatry.