’Others’ examines the fate of outsiders and unbelievers in the Reformation. Heretics were burned by both confessions to purge them from society. Each burning produced a martyr to inspire coreligionists. Anabaptists were the most intensely hated minority, due to their comprehensive challenge to authority. Toleration had to be extended to dissenters for pragmatic reasons in many cases. Islam continued to be seen as a threat to Christendom. Anti-Semitism intensified in Catholic Europe, but Protestantism was more accommodating. In both the West and East Indies, missionaries and new believers adapted Christianity to a new context, while in Western Europe, the ‘witch craze’ was a consequence of the drive for social purity.