‘Statistical models and methods’ explores the construction of models. Models are a representation of the system being studied. These can be mechanistic, i.e. rooted in an underlying theory, or be empirical, having no theoretical basis. Models can be used to seek new patterns or support proposed links, and can be used to describe known values or predict unknown ones. Models should be as simple as possible. Statistical methods can describe symmetrical relationships, such as correlations, using correlation coefficients. They can also describe asymmetrical relationships using regression analyses, survival analyses, ANOVA, and supervised classification. Methods also exist for investigating latent variables and time. Statistical graphics allow us to identify patterns visually.