‘Economic miracles and the making of a postmodern society’ is concerned with the end of World War II, Allied occupation and Japan's rapid economic growth in the postwar period. Occupation was ended in 1952, with the Korean War sparking fast economic growth. The emperor remained, but Japan was tied to US foreign policy by the Treaty of San Francisco. Investment in industry and an undervalued currency led to an export boom that tripled GNP during the 1960s. Prosperity was not enough to prevent an identity crisis where differing interpretations of tradition competed with modernity. The ‘lost decade’ of the 1990s saw growing fear of social collapse and individual despair.