The sexual revolution of the 1960s, brought on by reliable methods of contraception, the legalization of abortion, and the relaxation of moral controls led to greater openness, legal freedom, and sexual experimentation. ‘The state in the bedroom’ shows how the consequences of these changes were profound even though the changes themselves were short-lived (curtailed by the emergence of HIV/AIDS in the early 1980s). Western responses to HIV/AIDS were shaped by the political climate of the time. What does the notion of eugenics reveal about the concern of the state with reproductive sexuality? Politics around eugenics and AIDS illustrates the complex intersections of sexuality with notions of gender and race, and the need to balance individual and collective interests.