‘The challenges of citizenship, 1848–1920’ outlines the pressing issues of American life from the Civil War through to World War I. The activism of women such as Ida Wells-Barnet describes the struggle for African Americans to find political and economic justice after emancipation. Jim Crow segregation and hardening racial attitudes made free life for African Americans very difficult. The Civil War also acted as an important spur to industrialization. Immigration and female wage labor was central to this surge. The growth of higher education was an important precondition for women's new public engagement. The final push for suffrage, which was part of the larger Progressive era reform movement, is also described.