The Harlem Renaissance was, in the 1920s and 1930s, called the New Negro Renaissance. Black people redefined themselves and announced their entrance into modernity. They responded to its opportunities and its challenges: urbanization, technology, and the disruption of traditional social arrangements and values. The Harlem Renaissance occurred against the backdrop of the Great Migration, the mass movement of black people from the rural South to northern cities during the First World War. ‘When the Negro was in vogue’ outlines the key moments and figures of this time including Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Claude McKay, and Jean Toomer, Duke Ellington, and Josephine Baker.