‘Law and welfare’ examines the use of force, torture, punishment, the role of the judiciary, the legal system, and attitudes to welfare. How did Roman law work? At what point was it codified, and to what extent were local customs respected? State-sanctioned violence was common and torture and death was not unusual. As the Roman empire becomes Christian, Christian officials struggle with the incompatibility of Christian teachings with the imminent threat of barbarian invasion and the daily struggle to keep crime at bay. These conflicts are addressed by Augustine in his writings. Christianity argued the limits and extent of charitable giving and provided a mechanism for its distribution.