‘Religion’ looks at the shift in power from paganism towards Christianity. Religion in late antiquity also involves Judaism, Islam, and other myriad ways in which people thought about god in their everyday lives. Three Christian innovations transformed Roman and post-Roman society: the emergence of bishops as influential community leaders; experiments in monastic living, and the new ideas this espoused; and emperors' insistence on orthodoxy, that is, ‘right belief’. Did the rise of Christianity contribute to the fall of Rome? How did Christianity change the lives of ordinary people? Did Christianity open up new possibilities for women? Where did Augustine stand on marriage?