‘Barbarism’ examines the late antique understanding of barbarism. Is barbarism about society, art, behaviour, or fashion? Who were the Barbarians, and where did they come from? The Romans perceived the Barbarians as wild beasts. Should we accept this view? Modern historians point out that the Barbarians did not leave verbal or written records and Roman historians made no effort to understand their culture. Description of the battle at Adrianople (378) — was Roman defeat at the hands of the Huns a definitive sign of waning power? In 410 Rome is sacked — how traumatic an event was this for the empire and its citizens, and was it detrimental to the reputation of Christianity?