‘The Villanovan revolution’ examines this complex period of development, detailing its roots and impact on Etruscan society. This era is characterized by the creation of new sites and jumps from settlements with tens of occupants to sites containing hundreds of people. Evidence suggests that the landscape was also occupied and the pace of change varied from site to site. But there is less early Iron Age material distributed across Etruria than there is in the later Bronze Age and after. What caused this concentration of settlement? Perhaps the rise in population encouraged concentration but that is not the only reason.