‘The political system of communism’ explains the dual structure of Communist states. The Communist Party was to play the ‘leading role’ in the political system, while the state was responsible for passing laws and implementing them. Communist parties were all structured according to the principles of democratic centralism, although they varied somewhat from country to country. The different functions of the Communist party are examined and the nomenklatura system is explained, which is vital to understanding how Communists kept control over society. The reasons for Communist elections, and the electoral methods used, are discussed.