The questions that humanism addresses stretch back to the Ancient world. Modern humanism draws on a rich and long intellectual legacy. ‘History of humanism’ looks back at this legacy, which includes Ancient Indian thought; Confucius; Greek philosophers such as Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes; the Roman Empire; Averroës; the Renaissance; the Enlightenment; and the last two centuries. In many countries, humanism became part of the mainstream during the second half of the 20th century. In Europe, religious belief declined. Many prominent 20th-century thinkers were humanists. Religion may have declined but fundamental religion increased in strength.