Science fiction has taken the earlier idea of Utopia and embraced it in many different forms. ‘Utopias and dystopias’ elaborates these different strands and in particular traces the way that science fiction has, since the twentieth century, replaced Utopia with dystopias. The height of the utopian novel was in the late nineteenth-century and up until the outbreak of the First World War. Since George Orwell's 1984, the term Orwellian has become the descriptor for totalitarian regimes depicted in dystopian fiction and film. Women writers have contributed to this genre since the outset but recent years have seen the development of new feminist Utopias.