- Mary Jane Tacchi
- and Jan Scott
Although theories about the underlying causes of depression changed over the centuries, there was a remarkable level of consistency in the descriptions of the core symptoms with sadness and despondency accompanied by sleep problems and physical complaints. ‘The modern era: diagnosis and classification of depression’ reviews the contributions of Emil Kraepelin and Sigmund Freud to the current thinking on depression. Love them or loathe them, both men influenced thinking on the definition and boundaries of depression and how depression is diagnosed and classified. In more recent times, there have been international efforts to standardize approaches to diagnosis through the introduction of criterion-based classifications of mental disorders.