From early in the 16th century and into the 18th, most Protestants saw themselves as continuing the reform of European Christendom. They took for granted the norms of ‘Christendom’. Europe was divided so conflict was inevitable. ‘Protestant Christendom’ looks at this rift and how it impacted on the development of modern Protestantism in England, the Netherlands, France, and Scotland. This era was both good and bad: there was a release of Protestant energies that allowed Lutherans, the Reformed, and Anglicans to create local Christian identities that resulted in many scientific and social achievements, however, these civilizatroions were continually engaged in warfare, causing a secularism damaging for Christians.