At the start of the 19th century came a blow to the churches in Europe. The forces of the French Revolution viciously attacked Catholicism. Later, as Napoleon's armies conquered much of Europe, they dismantled long-standing traditions of cooperation between church and state which dated from before the Reformation. European Christendom went through crisis. ‘Flourishing, flailing, fragmenting’ looks at the problems and triumphs of different strands of Protestantism in Europe and North America as the movement struggled to come to terms with conflict in the former and new beginnings in the latter. The Protestant movement made many great achievements during this era including the abolition of slavery and important social and educational reforms.