‘The changing landscape’ outlines the three main elements of geomorphology: landforms (such as river valleys, beaches, yardangs), Earth surface processes (exogenic, or ‘outside’ processes, and endogenic, or processes that work from within), and the development of landscapes over time. Geomorphy is linked to hydrology, ecology, climatology, and human geography. A landscape is a series of complex layers, a palimpsest, and these layers also interact with each other. Landscapes include features such as rivers, fields, and roads. The rocks that underpin features dictate the topology — the ‘relief’ — of the landscape. Topology is influenced by elements such as wind and ice. Vegetation, plant life, and humans also have a shaping effect.