- John D. Lyons
‘Saints, werewolves, knights, and a poète maudit: allegiance and character in the Middle Ages’ explains how the protagonists of medieval texts are presented primarily in terms of their loyalty because this was the principal value of a feudal society. In the feudal system, power, identity, and landownership depended on the person in power. The text identified as the first substantial work of French literature concerns its hero's decision about the Lord to whom he will be loyal. The conduct of the knight is the core characterization of the protagonists of epic. The protagonists of the romances had quite different virtues, but loyalty and honour are still tested.