‘What isn't leadership?’ questions how we might differentiate leadership from management. Management and leadership, as two forms of authority rooted in the distinction between certainty and uncertainty, can also be related to Rittell and Webber's typology of ‘tame’ and ‘wicked’ problems. Elegant, or single-mode, solutions can be used for tame problems, but for wicked problems — resolving global warming, for instance — requires a clumsy solution. A critical component of a necessarily clumsy solution is to combine elements of all three cultural types: the individualist, the egalitarian, and the hierarchist. Within each of these types are techniques that, when combined, might just allow some progress to be made.