Martin Luther attracted both admirers and disparagers. The Afterword looks at both viewpoints and the larger legacy of Luther. The idolizing of Luther began in both words and images soon after his earliest works were published in 1518 and scholarly and popular acclaim for him continued beyond the Reformation. Disparagers of Luther were also many in number. The first were Catholic theologians and Humanists who opposed him as soon as his case was opened in Rome. The legacy of Luther now includes more than 70 million Christians in 79 countries who call themselves Lutheran. Luther also has an intellectual legacy, and in the 20th century the historical Luther was rediscovered through modern scholarship.