‘Public health’ looks at the measures taken by governments to protect the public from epidemics. By the end of the fifteenth century, basic defence mechanisms and the rationale of plague policies had been established. Most of what we understand by public health was first formulated in the context of plague. Surveillance, segregation, and the restriction of movement were central to these measures and by the early seventeenth century public order and public health were closely allied. When European conquerors and colonizers exported their version of public health, it was sometimes met with hostility from native populations.