War is not just fought by leaders and soldiers, it is fought by people against other people. Governments, churches, intellectuals, the press, and cultural organizations used different methods to rouse the people to fight. However, there are dangers in rousing the masses. ‘The people's war’ looks at how the wars were fought by the ordinary people, specifically examining nationalism in Europe by considering each of the major players in turn: Spain, Prussia, Austria, Russia, and Britain. Overall, the extent to which Europeans were mobilized by ideological commitment to nationalism or more traditional values is sketchy. Conflict absorbed the active participation of the populations in a variety of ways.